Investigating a Rust-on-UEFI division bug

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Created 2022-03-22, last updated 2022-07-10 02:52:26 UTC

2022-03-22

These are some notes related to https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/issues/86494. I filed that bug a while ago but haven't followed up on it. The bug still repros so I thought I'd take a look and see if I can give better information about what's going wrong. I haven't done any work on the rust compiler itself before, so I'll probably just be flailing around a bit.

It was suggested in the bug that the invalid instruction was maybe caused by SSE being used, which wouldn't normally be allowed in a UEFI environment. I think though that the invalid instruction is actually not happening in the division per se, but rather due to hitting unreachable_unchecked because it somehow thinks a division by zero is occurring.

I suspect the problem is in compiler_builtins, although it's certainly possible that rustc or llvm is at fault.

It's not currently possible to use a custom compiler_builtins in your project's Cargo.toml in combination with build-std. The current recommendation is to build rust with the necessary customizations.

So, I have both rust and compiler_builtins checked out. I added this to Cargo.toml in rust:


[patch.crates-io]
compiler_builtins = { path = "../compiler-builtins" }

And ran cargo update -p compiler_builtins for good measure, not sure if that's needed or not.

I set up config.toml like this, not at all sure if these are good settings.


profile = "user"
changelog-seen = 2

[llvm]
download-ci-llvm = true

[install]
prefix = "/var/home/nbishop/src/rust/bishinstall"

[build]
target = ["x86_64-unknown-uefi"]

Aside: there's a lot of documentation, both in the rust repo and linked to from it, e.g. the Guide to Rustc Development, but I've found it a bit challenging to navigate and find what I'm looking for. Certainly a much better problem to have than not having documentation! But it's still probably not as easy as it could be to get started with changing things in Rust and I have to imagine that most people who give it a try will bounce off the complexity pretty quickly and give up. (I may join that group after failing at this for a bit, we'll see!) This is a challenge that every big project faces of course, so absolutely no judgement to the Rust folks on this, just noting there's more work to do here.

Next, build stuff and see what breaks...


./x.py build

Lots of errors in compiler_builtins. I'll try checking out the version that rust is currently pinned to 0.1.70 and build again. And that fails the same way, hmm.

Ok, changing my config.toml to the library profile instead of user, and then adding #![feature(restricted_std)] in library/test/src/lib.rs got the build step to succeed. Then I ran ./x.py install to hopefully install it into the custom prefix. Unexpectedly to me, that sent it back to compiling a bunch of stuff instead of installing anything, and then it failed with the same errors as before.

Ok, let's try throwing #![allow(unexpected_cfgs)] into compiler_builtins's lib.rs. Now it's blowing up in a whole new way:


thread 'rustc' panicked at 'no entry found for key', compiler/rustc_metadata/src/rmeta/decoder/cstore_impl.rs:525:9

Hmm. Maybe it's time to take a step back and do a clean build of everything with a more stock config, because I have no idea what's going wrong. I'll switch from my laptop to my desktop for quicker builds.

2022-07-09

The error I hit above was related to this issue: https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/issues/97322

Using the patch in that bug I'm able to get past the error, and now ./x.py build succeeds. Hooray!

To get ./x.py install to work I had to change the sysconfdir to be relative, turn off docs, and limit the set of tools being built. Now my config looks like this:


profile = "user"
changelog-seen = 2

[llvm]
download-ci-llvm = true

[install]
prefix = "/var/home/nbishop/src/rust/bishinstall"
sysconfdir = "etc"

[build]
target = ["x86_64-unknown-uefi"]
docs = false
tools = ["cargo"]

Now it installs. Hooray! Unfortunately, compiling an actual project fails because build.rs's tend to expect std to be available. So I guess maybe I need to build the x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu target in addition to the uefi target?

Changed config to:


profile = "user"
changelog-seen = 2

[llvm]
download-ci-llvm = true

[install]
prefix = "/var/home/nbishop/src/rust/bishinstall"
sysconfdir = "etc"

[build]
target = ["x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu", "x86_64-unknown-uefi"]
docs = false
tools = ["cargo"]

Reran ./x.py build and ./x.py install.

Those succeed, and I get a bit further with building a project, but it fails at the link stage:


error: linker `rust-lld` not found
  |
  = note: No such file or directory (os error 2)

note: the msvc targets depend on the msvc linker but `link.exe` was not found

Let's try adding this to the config:


[rust]
lld = true

Now ./x.py build fails with:


CMake Error: The source directory "/var/home/nbishop/src/rust/src/llvm-project/lld" does not exist.

Let's try setting download-ci-llvm = false in the config. That's a big change so ./x.py build takes a long time, but it succeeds as does install.

Final config:


profile = "user"
changelog-seen = 2

[llvm]
download-ci-llvm = false

[install]
prefix = "/var/home/nbishop/src/rust/bishinstall"
sysconfdir = "etc"

[build]
target = ["x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu", "x86_64-unknown-uefi"]
docs = false
tools = ["cargo"]

[rust]
lld = true

Rust repo commit: 6c20ab744b0f82646d90ce9d25894823abc9c669

And now it works; I can build uefi-div-bug with:


PATH="/var/home/nbishop/src/rust/bishinstall/bin/:$PATH" ./run.py 

At this point I remember that I forgot about overriding the compiler_builtins dependency. I try adding it in as described above, using patch.crates-io, and get a bunch of unexpected-cfgs errors. Let's try this:


diff --git a/src/bootstrap/builder.rs b/src/bootstrap/builder.rs
index fa6a5ee1668..ff59038fe18 100644
--- a/src/bootstrap/builder.rs
+++ b/src/bootstrap/builder.rs
@@ -1471,7 +1471,7 @@ pub fn cargo(
         // is made to work with `--check-cfg` which is currently not easly possible until cargo
         // get some support for setting `--check-cfg` within build script, it's the least invasive
         // hack that still let's us have cfg checking for the vast majority of the codebase.
-        if stage != 0 {
+        if stage == 999 {
             // Enable cfg checking of cargo features for everything but std and also enable cfg
             // checking of names and values.
             //

New error, needed to initialize submodules in compiler_builtins.

With that fixed, the build works.

compiler_builtins commit: 3872a7c38c64279374b46bed5c8dec45e0a5b4fd

So in theory, I can now make changes in compiler_builtins to try and fix the bug.

Unfortunately, any change to compiler_builtins triggers a huge rebuild starting from stage0 compiler artifacts, so maybe this isn't a useful method for fixing the problem.


After putting the problem down for a few hours, I think I've found the fix. Windows has a weird ABI for certain 128-bit integer intrinsics that compiler-builtins handles with a special win64_128bit_abi_hack attribute. That attribute wasn't being applied for x86_64-unknown-uefi. Once I enabled it and rebuilt, the test project was able to successfully do division!

Put up a PR here: Enable win64_128bit_abi_hack for x86_64-unknown-uefi

Assuming that it is merged, we'll need to update the version of compiler-builtins in the rust repo and then we should be all good.


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